ELECTRIC CAR BATTERIES

Sajith Suliman
18/05/2022
0

Electric car battery technology

EV batteries go through cycles of 'discharge' when driving and 'charge' when the vehicle is plugged in. The electric potential the battery can hold decreases when this procedure is repeated over time. This reduces the range and time required between charging trips. Most battery manufacturers provide a five to eight-year warranty. The current prediction is that an electric car battery would last between 10 and 20 years before needing to be replaced.

The connection between a battery and the car's electric motor is surprisingly straightforward – the battery connects to one or more electric motors, which power the wheels. When you push the accelerator, the car immediately sends power to the motor, which slowly uses the energy stored in the batteries.

Because electric motors also function as generators, when you remove your foot off the accelerator, the car begins to slow down by turning its forward momentum back into electricity — this occurs more strongly if you apply the brakes. This regenerative braking restores energy that would otherwise be lost, conserving it in the battery and extending the range of the vehicle.

Electric Vehicle’s (EV) and their range

The distance you can travel on a single charge depends on the vehicle. Each model differs in terms of range, battery capacity, and efficiency. The ideal electric vehicle for you will be one that you can use for regular trips without needing to stop and charge halfway through. 

 

Types of electric cars

There are several types of electric vehicles (EV). Pure electric vehicles are those that run entirely on electricity. Some hybrid electric vehicles can also be powered by gasoline or diesel.

Plug-in electric - The car runs entirely on electricity and gets all of its power when plugged in to charge. This type does not require gasoline or diesel to operate and thus emits no pollution.

Plug-in hybrids - mostly run on electricity but also feature a traditional fuel engine, allowing them to run on gasoline or diesel if they run out of charge. These cars emit emissions when driving on gasoline, but not when operating on electricity. Plug-in hybrids may recharge their batteries by plugging them into an electrical outlet.

Hybrid-electric - These vehicles run primarily on fuel, such as gasoline or diesel, but also contain an electric battery that is replenished through regenerative braking. At the press of a button, you can switch between using your fuel engine and employing 'EV' mode. These vehicles cannot be charged with electricity and must run on gasoline or diesel.

 

LITHIUM – ION

A Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is a rechargeable battery which is used in electric cars and a variety of portable electronics. They have such a higher capacity than standard renewable lead-acid or nickel-cadmium batteries. This means that battery producers can conserve space, resulting in a smaller battery pack overall. Lithium-ion batteries can be found in consumer devices (telephones, laptops) as well as electric vehicles. The major reason for its large-scale success is the storage capacity enabled by lithium-ion technology.

The density notion refers to the proportion between the battery's storage capacity and its size or weight. In comparison, a lithium-ion battery has a density of roughly 300 to 500 Wh/kg, which is around ten times that of a lead-acid battery.

Because of their high energy per unit mass compared to other electrical energy storage methods, lithium-ion batteries are now employed in the majority of portable consumer gadgets such as cell phones and laptops. They also have a high power-to-weight ratio, outstanding high-temperature performance, and low levels of self-discharge. Most lithium-ion battery components can be recycled, but the expense of material recovery continues to be an issue for the business.

In addition, lithium is the lightest metal. However, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries contain ions rather than lithium metal. If you're wondering what an ion

is, it's an atom or molecule that has an electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons. Lithium-ion batteries are also safer than many alternatives, and battery producers are required to implement safety safeguards to protect consumers in the unlikely case of a battery failure. Manufacturers, for example, install charging protections in electric cars to preserve the batteries during multiple rapid charging sessions in a short amount of time.

Copyrights : Pagecran, Olivier Le Moal, auto-fantic.com, Tesla

 

The environmental impact of electric car batteries

Once their life as a car battery is over, EV batteries can be recycled into the energy cycle to power factories and households. Repurposing EV batteries could result in a confined-loop recycling system. That is, the factories that make the batteries might ultimately be powered by the recycled batteries once their lives of powering automobiles are through.

Large automakers have already begun to reuse EV batteries in various applications. Nissan, for example, intends to recycle retired EV batteries to provide backup generators to the Amsterdam ArenA, a world-famous entertainment arena and home to the Ajax Football Club.

If you use renewable energy, like wind or solar, you can link it with an EV battery. You can save it for use throughout the night when the wind and sunshine are diminished. Or even during the day, in conjunction with solar or wind energy. This process of generating power can help you save money on utility bills and minimize your reliance on the grid.

 

SEVERAL FACTORS AFFECTING LI-ION CYCLE LIFE 

  • Avoiding extremely high and extremely low charge states. Voltages above 4.15V/cell (about 95 percent state of charge [SOC]) and voltages below 3.00V/cell (approximately 2 percent SOC) place high strain on the cell's interior (both physical and electrical).
  • Avoiding excessively high charge rates. Charging quicker than C/2 (2 hour charge) can shorten the life of the cell.
  • Charging should be avoided at temperatures below 0° C. (In low weather, our design warms the pack before charging.)
  • Avoiding excessive discharge rates. (Our pack is constructed in such a way that the current required from each cell is not exorbitant even at maximum discharge rate.)


 

 

 

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